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What Is ISDN?
ISDN--Integrated Services Digital Network-- is both a set of digital transmission standards, a network infrastructure that allows digital transmission over existing telephone wiring, as provided by public network service providers. An ISDN circuit provides end-to-end digital connectivity to support a wide range of services, including voice and non-voice.
Primary Rate Interface (PRI)
The copper line using digital transmission technology, extended from the nearest exchange to your premises is terminated into a Modem (RAD HTU E1 / RAD FCD E1). The PRI circuit is provided using a two pair of copper. It is also known as a 4-wire circuit. The input to the modem would be G703 and the output the modem is a V.35 interface. The modem can be extended to a PRI interface card or to a router optional Terminal Adapter for connecting other equipments like multiple phones, fax, PC’s or a Local Area Network. The TA ensures that analog signals transmitted through the respective equipments are converted to digital signals to improve speeds and transmission quality. In a BRA circuit consists of two B channels (64 kbps) and One D channel (16 kbps), (2B+1D).
The Primary Rate Interface (PRI) is a standardized telecommunications service level within the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) specification for carrying multiple DS0 voice and data transmissions between a network and a user.
PRI is the standard for providing telecommunication services to offices. It is based on the T-carrier (T1) line in the US and Canada, and the E-carrier (E1) line in Europe. The T1 line consists of 24 channels, while an E1 has 32.
T1 and E1 systems
PRI provides a varying number of channels depending on the standards in the country of implementation. In North America and Japan it consists of 23xB (B channels (be/s). In Europe and Australia it is 30xB + 1xD on an E1 2.048 Mbit/s. One timeslot on the E1 is used for synchronization purposes and is not considered to be a B or D channel.
Fewer active B channels (also called bearer channels) can be used for a fractional T1. Bearer channels may also be known as user channels. More channels can be used with more T1s, within certain design limits.
PRI and BRI
The Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) prescribes two levels of service:
BRI, the Basic Rate Interface: two 64-kbit/s B channels and one 16-kbit/s D channel, intended for the homes and small enterprises PRI, the Primary Rate Interface for large organisations, with one 64-kbit/s D channel and 23 (1536 Mbit/s T1, a.k.a. "23B + D") or 30 64-kbit/s B channels (2048 Mbit/s E1, a.k.a. "30B + D").
Each B-channel carries data, voice, and other services. The D-channel carries control and signaling information. Larger connections are possible using PRI pairing. A dual T1-PRI could have 24 + 23 = 47 B-channels and 1 D-channel (often called "47B + D"), but more commonly has 46 B-channels and 2 D-channels thus providing a backup signaling channel. The concept applies to E1s as well and both can include more than 2 PRIs. Normally, no more than 2 D-channels are provisioned as additional PRIs are added to the group.
Advantages of ISDN over an analog line
Handle data, voice, image, video, telex, and fax.
High-speed alternative to analog dial up service
Allow fast call establishment
End to end digital circuit
Network management from . switch
Handle wide range of Transmission speeds (64K /128K), 5 to 6 times faster than analog lines therefore lower usage cost.
Few pairs of copper, hence higher reliability.
Applications that are widely used on ISDN
Concurrent use of any two applications like fax, data, voice, video conferencing
Electronic Data Processing
Data Transmission on LAN & WAN
Control Internet usage by allocating band width on a pay and use basis.
Enjoy the benefits of instant access on voice and Net.
Video Conferencing @ 128 Kbps, 384 Kbps High Quality Video by 3 ISDN Lines
Internet Access at 64 Kbps or 128 Kbps up to 2Mbps